Belzer, Hillary. “Words + Guitar: The Riot Grrrl Movement and Third-Wave Feminism.” M.A. Diss. Georgetown University, 2004.
Belzer’s thesis “Words + Guitar: The Riot Grrrl Movement and Third-Wave Feminism” discusses how Riot Grrrl and its place in subcultural theory. She references Hebdige as the comprehensive resource for defining subcultures. Belzer claims that punk was the first subculture to take an “oppositional” stance to mainstream societal norms. She suggests that the original punk movement of the 1970s was appealing to women, because it allowed them to “break free” of ideals of femininity. Belzer mentions the DIY aspect of both traditional punk subculture and the Riot Grrrl movement. She cites the creation of both zines and music within Riot Grrrl as “forms of resistance”, allowing girls to challenge mainstream media’s ideas about femininity. Belzer discusses the nature of music as a feature of subculture. She cites James Lull, and his theory that music allows for communication and spreading of ideas, both through lyrical content and musical atmosphere. Belzer’s argument provides a broad introduction to the motives behind Riot Grrrl, as well as its place within subcultural theory as a whole.