Gottlieb, Joanne, and Gayle Wald. “Smells Like Teen Spirit: Riot Grrrls, Revolution and Women in Independent Rock.” Critical Matrix 7.2 (1993) p.11-43
This article discusses in great detail the role of women in rock music, both leading up to and including the Riot Grrrl movement of the 1990s. It also discusses the nature of subcultures, and subculture theory, and reflects on work by both Simon Frith and Angela McRobbie. The authors of this article suggest that women and girls have been excluded from the major subcultures of the 20th century. They argue that this is due to their roles as “youth” being focused around staying inside and being prepared for marriage rather than hanging out in the street and in clubs, where most subcultural movements were focused. The suggestion is that girls hanging out in the street were, historically, thought to be prostitutes. Understanding this concept sheds light on, possibly, why Riot Grrrls were so focussed on demystifying female sexual experience, and taking their place in clubs and in the street, as well as reclaiming derogatory terms such as
“slut” and “whore” for their own empowerment. It also highlights why Riot Grrrl, as a subculture, has been so historically significant.